Studying Process

While writing this type of an essay you can use all your creativity and extraordinary thinking. By using this form, your professor can check your ability to read a book or an article, to distinguish the most important facts and statements and to express your own opinion about this topic. Try to notice something that nobody has noticed before. Remember the difference between an annotation and an abstract. The abstract is just a description of any book, you can find this kind of a text in a bookshop on every book cover. Annotation contains your opinion, a piece of your soul, statements about how you perceived this book. You need to intrigue a reader, to make him wish to read the book about which you wrote a description. Remember to check out our text about an article review, it will definitely be useful for you.


The first thing you need to do is to find books and articles for your bibliography. It will be better if you choose books that have not been analyzed much before. Be attentive because in future you will be able to use this bibliography as a list of research sources, so it can become a part of a larger research essay or even project. The success of your bibliography depends on sources you will choose. A topic or question you are investigating needs to be concrete and actual. You can offer series of questions that have much in common and they come logically one after one. In order to select a qualitative material, you need to answer a few questions: “What kind of sources am I looking for?” “Do I need books or articles?” “What is the main problem that I am trying to solve?”

Annotation for One Source

So what is the main thing that any annotation needs to include? What element makes it different from just a description? It is not enough just to tell what this book is about. You need to show your motivation to use this book exactly for your research. Try to declare what useful information you have found while reading this book to answer questions for achieving your goal. So one part of your annotation is your question and conclusions you made by reading this material. You need to formulate the main author’s statement, to express your point of view and to prove that it was helpful for your work. Pay attention to the terms the author uses more often, maybe you will find some new that you have not known before. Also notice a structure of an article, how a material was devised. In this way, it will be easier to find the main arguments. Realize which methods exactly were used to get these results and facts. Did you detect them before? Anyway, this type of work gives you an ability to discover and remember a huge amount of information.

Value of Sources

You definitely need to mention it in your bibliography. How did this material help you? Have you found answers? Do you agree with author’s statements? Are you interested in writing your own articles or even books? Did this material have an influence on your investigation? It is important to answer these questions in brief. It shows that you have an ability not only to read and analyze any material but also to use it effectively.

Variety of Bibliographies

Writing Essays

Actually, there are a few options how you can write it if your professor has not given you some strict requirements. You can make a summary of an article without expressing your point of view. Another option is that you can compare different sources, find advantages and disadvantages of each one. Remember about organizing your bibliography, dividing it into smaller parts and paragraphs, especially if it is a long list. You can name your sections or categories by the question they answer.

Bibliography Vocabulary

You may need some words to express your thoughts in more scientific, logical, and official way. We have a list of verbs found in the University of Toronto’s website for you to make your work better: analyze, compare, depict, exhibit, investigate, recognize, argue, conclude, determine, explain, judge, reflect, assess, criticize, distinguish, frame, justify, refer to, assert, defend, evaluate, identify, narrate, report, assume, define, emphasize, illustrate, persuade, review, claim, demonstrate, examine, imply, propose, suggest, The evidence indicates that . . .The article assesses the effect of . . .The author identifies three reasons for . . .The article questions the view that . . .  account for, clarify, describe, exemplify, indicate, question, etc.


So, the first thing you need to do is choosing your topic and materials which match it. The second thing is determining the form of your work: it would be a simple summary or you will state your own position about it. The third thing is highlighting the most important statements, facts and an explanation why it is useful for your future research. Compare which sources were useful for you and which were not so effective. After that, just start writing. It can be hard to begin, so you can use the list of verbs we gave you to make it easy. After writing about every source in your list, think about the way you will organize your bibliography. Often it is a list in the alphabetical order, but do not forget to divide each paragraph into smaller parts if it is necessary. Remember to add an information about an author and a year when a book or an article was published. You can use MLA or APA formats; ask your professor about it. Remember that each annotation needs to include a citation, summary, and your personal opinion. Format your paper according to all requirements, for example, one-inch spacing above and the left side of a sheet.

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